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Thirty years after Maastricht: financial integration in the European Union

This paper explores financial integration dynamics in the EU since the Maastricht Treaty by providing an articulated and structured historical narrative that analyses the progress that the EU has made in building the regulatory...


This paper assesses the state of preparation for the possible launch of a digital euro. It focuses on the main relevant aspects: market impact, implications for banks, design and technical issues, monetary policy, financial stability, the role of fintech and Big Techs, international dimensions, privacy, and financial inclusion. On each, brief recommendations for the ECON Committee’s work are offered. The concluding judgment is broadly positive on the preparatory work but doubtful on the wisdom of eventually launching a digital euro.

This document was prepared by the Economic Governance and EMU scrutiny Unit at the request of the ECON Committee.

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